Contact Author Introduction We all know that the male and female human are obviously anatomically different. Furthermore, the male and female body behave differently when it comes to the manifestations and treatments of various diseases.
Characteristics of deviants, such as poor self-control, impulsivity, aggression, lack of empathy, thrill-seeking, and poor reasoning and verbal skills, all may have a biological component that predisposes an individual to antisocial behavior.
Scientific methodologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging MRIprovide additional insights into the relationship between biology, psychology, and learning as they relate to deviance and criminality.
Regardless of causation, poor parenting skills, child abuse, parental criminal history, and lower verbal IQ scores, are important elements in the development of deviant and delinquent behaviors.
Is a person born bad, or is it by interacting with others that an individual fails to learn acceptable social behavior? In part, the answer to that question depends upon the focus one brings to the issue. Experts in genetics, neurology, and related biological sciences tend The difference between sociological and biological develop perspectives based upon more innate physical qualities that impact human behavior.
Social scientists and psychologists tend to focus on human interactions as a basis of social development.
Some individual scholars view one factor as causal in terms of deviance and criminality, while others seek a more integrated theoretical analysis that looks at several factors. While their theoretical framework is related to sexual offending exclusively, it could also be helpful in the development of theories of violent crime in general.
Thus, although the balance of this article looks at the various factors individually, it is important to appreciate the complexity and interconnectedness of biological and psychological theories of deviance and criminality.
Because so many factors pertaining to our physical existence impact our brains and emotional responses, some biological theories of deviance and criminality deserve mention in this look at psychological theories. For example, studies on animals relate high levels of dopamine and norepinephrine to impulsive or reactive acts of aggression Raine, It may be the case, then, that no one cause or condition explains criminal deviance.
Further Insights Biological Factors in Deviance The Frontal Cortex Studies of brain conditions and development also provide some compelling research on the development of antisocial behavior. Raine and her colleagues surveyed the literature and set forth two areas of the brain that may relate to antisocial behavior: The frontal cortex regulates aggression, self-control, social judgment, concentration, and intellectual flexibility, while the left hemisphere of the brain governs "functions of language, verbal comprehension, and expressive speech" p.
Studies of adults and delinquent youth show lower verbal IQ scores, suggesting that they may have a left hemisphere dysfunction. Based on magnetic resonance imaging MRI studies, scientists believe that the brain of a juvenile is less developed than that of an adult, especially in the front lobe, which is responsible for executive, high order functioning, such as memory, planning, and inhibition.
Bower and others suggested that this condition presents some juveniles with difficulties in "regulating aggression, long-range planning, mental flexibility, abstract thinking, the capacity to hold in mind related pieces of information, and perhaps moral judgment" Because of these findings, advocates within the juvenile justice field, such as the Human Rights Watch, are pressuring politicians and judicial leaders to reconsider harsh, punitive measures when sentencing juvenile violent offenders.
Neurology Neurology, the study of the nervous system, also may provide some insights into the psychological aspects of deviance and criminality. In their review of this literature, Raine and her colleagues point to two major areas of consideration based upon studies of psychopaths, defined as people who exhibit aggressive, violent thoughts and actions and who lack empathy Individuals with this condition are "less sensitive to the subtle cues required for learning prosocial behavior" and the condition may "impair the classic conditioning of emotional responses thought to be important in conscience formation and avoidance learning" Raine,p.
Arguably, then, the violent behavior might be a mechanism for seeking stimulation or, in the alternative, the individual may not experience violence or stress as something negative and to be avoided.
Briefly stated, this theoretical framework argues that psychopaths have a heightened desire for rewards, along with a reduced perception of the risks of punishment.
Arguably, this hyper-focus on "reward may also interfere with learning the cues that lead to punishment" p. Conversely, by being unable to feel anxiety and stress as it relates to punishment, these individuals have an increased likelihood of acting in antisocial or criminal ways.
Extraversion Another important look at the interplay between psychological and physiological causes of deviance was set forth by Eysenck in the late s. In the s, Eysenck added levels of "psychoticism" to his scale, arguing that psychotics exhibit aggressive, cold, and impersonal behavior that can lead to interpersonal conflicts and criminal conduct Eysenck, Like so many other personality scales developed during the twentieth century, Eysenck and his colleagues had apparently included questions about criminal conduct and violence in their questionnaires, and they concluded that whichever traits the criminal respondents exhibited were proof of criminal tendencies.
Other Personality Traits Another major contribution on personality traits was by Wilson and Herrnstein They concluded that individuals with criminal and violent personalities exhibited the following characteristics: Since questions on these scales related to past criminality and acts of violence, however, these studies fall into the same methodological problems of labeling individuals with criminal pasts as having criminal personality traits.
In their general theory of criminality, Gottfredson and Hirschi argued that self-control factors are the most powerful predictors of deviance and crime Committing a crime is easy, exciting, and offers immediate gratification. Similarly, it takes little or no planning and does not require any long term commitment or ongoing interpersonal negotiations.
Similarly, Hardwick has argued that although parental supervision plays an important role in the development of self-control, biological factors appear to play the most significant role in the relationship between deviance and self-control In the theoretical frameworks discussed above, biological factors either exacerbated or diminished cues in such a manner as to cause antisocial or deviant behavior.
According to Freud, human nature is The entire section is 4, words.May 23, · Sociology is the study of society. It is an independent branch which came into picture in the 19th Century where as social psychology is a branch under psychology. But the foundations for creating a separate branch of social psychology was laid by.
The Difference Between Sociological and Biological Definitions of Health and Illness Sociology and biology, these two broad words come together, likewise with health and illness. All of these words are associated with one another specifically in terms of health industry.
Many psychological theories of deviance are inextricably linked to biological conditions of the human body and mind. Characteristics of deviants, such as poor self-control, impulsivity, aggression. Biological Differences Between Men and Women With Respect to Physical Aggression and Social Stability The Biological Logic – Why Men and Women Respond Differently to Conflict One possible biological explanation for this sex difference is the male primate urge to rise in rank.
Biological Differences Between Men and Women With Respect to Physical Aggression and Social Stability The Biological Logic – Why Men and Women Respond Differently to Conflict One possible biological explanation for this sex difference is the male primate urge to rise in rank.
Sociological theories are very useful in the study of criminal behavior because unlike psychological and biological theories they are mostly macro level theories which attempt to explain rates of crime for a group or an area rather than explaining why an individual committed a crime.