In various ways, environmentalism claims that living things other than humans, and the natural environment as a whole, are deserving of consideration in reasoning about the morality of political, economic, and social policies. For discussion of environmental statutes and regulations, including international conventions, see also environmental law. Intellectual underpinnings Environmental thought and the various branches of the environmental movement are often classified into two intellectual camps: It is often characterized by a mechanistic approach to nonhuman nature in which individual creatures and species have only an instrumental value for humans.
Antitoxics groups[ edit ] Antitoxics groups are a subgroup that is affiliated with the Environmental Movement in the United States, that is primarily concerned with the effects that cities and their by products have on humans.
This aspect of the movement is a self-proclaimed "movement of housewives". As a result of this dumping the residents had symptoms of skin irritation, Lois Gibbsa resident of the development, started a grassroots campaign for reparations. Eventual success led to the government having to purchase homes that were sold in the development.
During the s, primary responsibility for clean air and water shifted to the federal government. Growing concerns, both environmental and economic, from cities and towns as well as sportsman and other local groups, and senators such as Maine's Edmund S.
These laws regulated public drinking water systems, toxic substances, pesticides, and ocean dumping; and protected wildlife, wilderness, and wild and scenic rivers. Moreover, the new laws provide for pollution research, standard setting, contaminated site cleanup, monitoring, and enforcement.
Groups such as the Sierra Club shifted focus from local issues to becoming a lobby in Washington and new groups, for example, the Natural Resources Defense Council and Environmental Defense, arose to influence politics as well.
Larson [ citation needed ] Renewed focus on local action[ edit ] In the s President Ronald Reagan sought to curtail scope of environmental protection taking steps such as appointing James G. Watt who was called one of the most "blatantly anti-environmental political appointees".
The major environmental groups responded with mass mailings which led to increased membership and donations. The large environmental organization increasingly relied on ties within Washington, D. At the same time membership in environmental groups became more suburban and urban.
Groups such as animal rights, and the gun control lobby became linked with environmentalism while sportsmen, farmers and ranchers were no longer influential in the movement.
The wise use movement and anti-environmental groups were able to portray environmentalist as out of touch with mainstream values. Larson [ citation needed ] "Post-environmentalism"[ edit ] Inwith the environmental movement seemingly stalled, some environmentalists started questioning whether "environmentalism" was even a useful political framework.
According to a controversial essay titled " The Death of Environmentalism " Michael Shellenberger and Ted NordhausAmerican environmentalism has been remarkably successful in protecting the air, water, and large stretches of wilderness in North America and Europe, but these environmentalists have stagnated as a vital force for cultural and political change.
Shellenberger and Nordhaus wrote, "Today environmentalism is just another special interest. Evidence for this can be found in its concepts, its proposals, and its reasoning.
What stands out is how arbitrary environmental leaders are about what gets counted and what doesn't as 'environmental.
Werbach endorsed building an environmental movement that is more relevant to average Americans, and controversially chose to lead Wal-Mart's effort to take sustainability mainstream. These "post-environmental movement" thinkers argue that the ecological crises the human species faces in the 21st century are qualitatively different from the problems the environmental movement was created to address in the s and s.
They argue that climate change and habitat destruction are global and more complex, therefore demanding far deeper transformations of the economy, the culture and political life. The consequence of environmentalism's outdated and arbitrary definition, they argue, is political irrelevancy. These "politically neutral" groups tend to avoid global conflicts and view the settlement of inter-human conflict as separate from regard for nature - in direct contradiction to the ecology movement and peace movement which have increasingly close links: However, such groups tend not to "burn out" and to sustain for long periods, even generations, protecting the same local treasures.
Local groups increasingly find that they benefit from collaboration, e. However, the differences between the various groups that make up the modern environmental movement tend to outweigh such similarities, and they rarely co-operate directly except on a few major global questions.
In a notable exception, over 1, local groups from around the country united for a single day of action as part of the Step It Up campaign for real solutions to global warming.
Groups such as The Bioregional Revolution are calling on the need to bridge these differences, as the converging problems of the 21st century they claim compel the people to unite and to take decisive action.
They promote bioregionalismpermacultureand local economies as solutions to these problems, overpopulationglobal warmingglobal epidemicsand water scarcitybut most notably to " peak oil "—the prediction that the country is likely to reach a maximum in global oil production which could spell drastic changes in many aspects of the residents' everyday lives.Greenpeace, Earth First!
and The Earth Liberation Front: The Progression of the Radical mainstream organizations. One form of activism, Ecotage, has an incredible success rate and controversy surrounding its practice. Ecotage focuses specifically on the activities of companies and industries that seriously.
The large mainstream environmentalism groups started to compromise too much with regulatory agencies and bureaus, starting with the Glen Canyon Dam project. The Controversies Surrounding Mainstream Environmental Movements and Organizations PAGES .
Almost over night, the environment became a popular cause, previously confined to a few environmental enthusiasts.
Membership in mainstream organizations grew. Another movement, unknown to public, had grown from old conservationists who inspiring the creation of radical groups and movements.
Organizations that deal with autism often become rather controversial themselves. The two best examples I can think of are Autism Speaks and the Autistic Self-Advocacy Network (ASAN).
If you're like most people, you've probably never heard of ASAN before. Environmental justice is concerned with ensuring that the haves and have-nots both have a say in environmental policy and share the burdens of the consequences of those policies.
Explain how the failure to regulate detrimental practices on private property might have widespread negative environmental consequences on public lands. Invoking the word justice, as activists of color did when they formed organizations in the late ’s and early ‘80’s focused on environmental justice to tackle virulent and pervasive institutionalized environmental racism, this debate actually goes back, as Naomi Klein referenced, to controversies that first emerged with the rise to prominence of the .