Priority has therefore been given to a range of measures for run-off and soil erosion control. One such measure, the use of stone bunds built on natural contour lines, has been promoted and supported by governments, NGOs, extension agents and farmers for more than 25 years and is now widely used in the Sahel. The best results are often achieved when contour stone bunds are used in combination with the planting of grass and trees on the contour lines. In wetter years they help to reduce the climate-induced risk of run-off and erosion.
Genetic engineering Photo by: Gernot Krautberger Genetic engineering is any process by which genetic material the building blocks of heredity is changed in such a way as to make possible the production of new substances or new functions.
As an example, biologists have now learned how to transplant the gene that produces light in a firefly into tobacco plants. The function of that gene—the production of light—has been added to the normal list of functions of the tobacco plants. The chemical structure of genes Genetic engineering became possible only when scientists had discovered exactly what is a gene.
Prior to the s, the term gene was used to stand for a unit by which some genetic characteristic was transmitted from one generation to the next. Biologists talked about a "gene" for hair color, although they really had no idea as to what that gene was or what it looked like.
That situation changed dramatically in The English chemist Francis Crick — and the American biologist James Watson — determined a chemical explanation for a gene. Crick and Watson discovered the chemical structure for large, complex molecules that occur in the nuclei of all living cells, known as deoxyribonucleic acid DNA.
DNA molecules, Crick and Watson announced, are very long chains or units made of a combination of a simple sugar and a phosphate group. Words to Know Amino acid: An organic compound from which proteins are made. A large, complex chemical compound that makes up the core of a chromosome and whose segments consist of genes.
A segment of a DNA molecule that acts as a kind of code for the production of some specific protein. Genes carry instructions for the formation, functioning, and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another.
The process by which genes are cut apart and put back together to provide them with some new function. A set of nitrogen base combinations that act as a code for the production of certain amino acids.
The cell into which a new gene is transplanted in genetic engineering. Human gene therapy HGT: The application of genetic engineering technology for the cure of genetic disorders. An organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen arranged in a ring that plays an essential role in the structure of DNA molecules.
A circular form of DNA often used as a vector in genetic engineering. Large molecules that are essential to the structure and functioning of all living cells. Genetic engineering; a technique for adding new instructions to the DNA of a host cell by combining genes from two different sources.
An organism or chemical used to transport a gene into a new host cell. Attached at regular positions along this chain are nitrogen bases.
Nitrogen bases are chemical compounds in which carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms are arranged in rings. Four nitrogen bases occur in DNA: The way in which nitrogen bases are arranged along a DNA molecule represents a kind of genetic code for the cell in which the molecule occurs.
For example, the sequence of nitrogen bases T-T-C tells a cell that it should make the amino acid known as lysine. The sequence C-C-G, on the other hand, instructs the cell to make the amino acid glycine.
A very long chain tens of thousands of atoms long of nitrogen bases tells a cell, therefore, what amino acids to make and in what sequence to arrange those amino acids. A very long chain of amino acids arranged in a particular sequence, however, is what we know of as a protein.
The specific sequence of nitrogen bases, then, tells a cell what kind of protein it should be making. Furthermore, the instructions stored in a DNA molecule can easily be passed on from generation to generation. When a cell divides reproducesthe DNA within it also divides. Each DNA molecule separates into two identical parts.
Each of the two parts then makes a copy of itself.Sessions & Tracks. Track 1: Agriculture Engineering Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that studies agricultural production and processing.
Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of mechanical, civil, electrical and chemical engineering principles with a knowledge of agricultural principles according to .
Agronomy, Horticulture, Agriculture.
CROP SCIENCE DICTIONARIES & GLOSSARIES GLOSSARY OF CROP SCIENCE TERMS - Crop Science Society of America Multimedia Crop Science Glossary (Text & Images).
VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see the Publications or the Crop Science Society of America AGRONOMY COURSES, . Genetic engineering is any process by which genetic material (the building blocks of heredity) is changed in such a way as to make possible .
Some choose to use conventional crop varieties and control pests, weeds, and disease using other methods. None of these processes use genetic engineering or genetic modification. The lesson was rewritten and updated in by National Agriculture in the Classroom.
This section introduces a range of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices and technologies within seven entry points for CSA; soil management, crop management, water management, livestock management, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, and energy pfmlures.comces are understood broadly as ways of doing things, for .
Sep 08, · The gm crops currently on the market are mainly aimed at an increased level of some benefits genetic engineering in agriculture crop yields, reduced costs for food or drug production, need.