Classical Organization Theory Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory. Frederick Taylor developed scientific management theory often called "Taylorism" at the beginning of this century. His theory had four basic principles:
Conclusion Introduction Conflict, when properly managed, is a positive source of competitiveness and collaboration in a workplace. On the other hand, when unmanaged, conflict can create division, low morale, and chaos in the same environment. Executives and managers must learn to identify constructive conflict and manage it effectively.
Conversely, leadership must identify negative conflict and deal with it decisively and completely. For leaders to manage conflict effectively, they must understand all aspects of it. Identifying the causes and exploring the effects of conflict is critical.
Fortunately, managers can adopt strategies for minimizing conflict and learn useful ways to arrive at solutions by observing conflict management practices in successful corporations. Understanding and identifying the sources of conflict as well as positive and negative aspects of conflict is the first step to good leadership.
Causes of Conflict in the Workplace All managers and executives at some time have had to deal with conflict. The way that each one handles discord is a determining factor of success. Initially, he or Job satisfaction and organizational commitment management essay must communicate to gain a clear understanding of what is actually causing the conflict.
She notes that communication problems are particularly exaggerated when departments are competing for resources or when they have unique subcultures. A critical step in solving conflict is for managers to understand that communication is one of its roots Hastings.
With that in mind, Hastings addresses some of the key issues that can trigger conflict. Different work methods Employees often have the same goal but different approaches for achieving it. As Hastings notes, the ownership of the approach, or idea, is what gives each employee pride.
When approaches collide, a simple step toward resolution is for managers to encourage employees to develop more fully their approaches. Next, managers should ask employees to propose their respective plans and review them as a group.
According to Hastings, employees will find that often a combination of the approaches is actually the best solution.
Different goals Often in organizations, separate business units may drive towards different goals.
For example, the goal of a security controls department is to ensure the security of the corporation and its customers.
This goal often affects performance and work output to other business units, such as one that focuses on generating revenue. As an executive or manager, it is imperative that goals be set at the corporate level and fully communicated to all areas of business.
Therefore, if executives and managers communicate goals and criteria effectively, two things will happen in this scenario. First, business units will understand the basic role and importance of security. Second, security will understand how corporate decisions impact revenue.
Clearly, management can overcome differences in goals through effective communication. People are sometimes annoyed by one another simply because of their looks or actions. Because everyone has biased opinions, management should not expend resources attempting to change them. However, avoiding personality conflicts altogether can significantly affect productivity.
As a result, effective leaders must understand employee biases and personality differences and partner teams and individuals to maximize productivity.
Stress Stress is a huge motivator of conflict. Every employee has a breaking point, and every employee will reach his or her breaking point at some time or another. On a good day, employees can let issues and differences roll off their backs.
However, as stress from home and work deadlines collide, often tempers will flare. With that in mind, leaders must learn to recognize the warning signs of stress in each employee and attempt to alleviate it.
Offering employees something as simple as a break or, in more severe cases, an afternoon off can go a long way toward relieving work-related stress.
Different viewpoints or perspectives Individual perspectives are what give a business environment its edge. As a result, employers are looking for diversity in people in order to ensure different perspectives are considered.
Leaders in this situation must carefully and clearly listen to and understand the different perspectives. This one area can be the trickiest for managers.
Since managers also have perspectives, often perspectives different from their own are misunderstood or pushed aside. Managers and leaders must remember that at least some of their employees will likely have different perspectives.
Effects of Conflict in the Workplace In addition to understanding the causes of conflict, managers need to understand its effects.Assessing Affective Commitment 5 dissatisfaction but no job satisfaction, and the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction but no.
Index Organizational Theory and Behavior © , David S. Walonick, Ph.D. Classical Organization Theory. Classical organization theory evolved during the first half. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to explore the link between job satisfaction and organisational performance and to determine if there is an empirically provable relationship between these two variables, and the direction and the .
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The ’s ushered in a new era where organizational decline was apparent everywhere. Management strategies involved reducing employees, salary freezes and reductions, cutting administrative overhead, and consolidating operations.