Introduction A concise and universally accepted definition of poverty is elusive largely because it affects many aspects of the human conditions, including physical, moral and psychological.
Introduction A concise and universally accepted definition of poverty is elusive largely because it affects many aspects of the human conditions, including physical, moral and psychological. Different criteria have, therefore, been used to conceptualize poverty.
Most analyses follow the conventional view of poverty as a result of insufficient income for securing basic goods and services.
Others view poverty, in part, as a function of education, health, life expectancy, child mortality etc. Blackwood and Lynchidentify the poor, using the criteria of the levels of consumption and expenditure. Further, Senrelates poverty to entitlements which are taken to be the various bundles of goods and services over which one has command, taking into cognizance the means by which such goods are acquired for example, Money and Coupons etc and the availability of the needed goods.
Poverty may arise from changes in average income or changes in the distribution of income. Let us for instance, assume a relationship between the poverty line L below which an individual is poor and the average incomes of the population Y. The poverty index will decrease increase as L Y increases decreases.
Since higher average incomes are above the poverty line, other things being equal there will be less poverty.
Compare for instance, two countries with identical mean incomes and poverty linebut with one having a wider area ofdistribution of incomes that is one with greater incomeinequality ; poverty will generally be greater in the country with higher inequality, since there will be relatively more people with incomes lower than the poverty line L.
Thus, the distribution of income has an important influence on poverty. Social science literature is replete with attempts by economists and social scientists to conceptualize the phenomenon of poverty. It explains poverty in material terms and specifically employs consumption -based categories to explain the extent and depth of poverty, and establish who is and who is not poor.
Thus, the poor are conceived as those individuals or households in a particular society, incapable of purchasing a specified basket of basic goods and services.
Impaired access to productive resources agricultural land, physical capital and financial assets leads to absolute low income, unemployment, undernourishment etc.
Inadequate endowment of human capital is also a major cause of poverty. Generally, impaired access to resources shifts the focus on poverty and it curtails the capability of individual to convert available productive resources to a higher quality of life Sen, ;Adeyeye,;Ogwumike, Poverty can also be the outcome of inefficient use of common resources.
This may result from weak policy environment, inadequate infrastructure, weak access to technology, credit etc. In Sub-Sahara Africa SSAthe agricultural sector was exploited through direct and indirect taxation throughout the colonial and post-colonial decades leading to poor growth performance of the sector, heightened rural -urban migration and employment crisis.
In urban SSA, Silver suggests three paradigms of exclusion: Poverty can be structural chronic or transient. The former is defined as persistent or permanent socio-economic deprivations and is linked to a host of factors such as limited productive resources, lack of skills for gainful employment, endemic socio-political and cultural factors and gender.
Transient poverty is more reversible but can become structural if it persists. It is generally agreed that in conceptualizing poverty, low income or low consumption is its symptom.
This has been used for the construction of poverty lines. Various theories have been advanced in order to put in proper perspective the mechanics of poverty. Further, the early classical theorists in the attempt to illuminate on the concept of poverty based their analytical framework on the laws of diminishing returns which was believed to be universal in content although this was later upgraded at the time of Alfred Marshall and his contemporaries when the law of increasing returns in industry was more clearly articulated.
Understanding the nature of poverty perhaps received a boost following Marxian theoretical formulation largely based on the principle of exploitation of labour.
Marxian theoretical formulations presents the economy as ultimately polarized into a few rich capitalists and the masses made up of the poor miserable workers. Technological progress, it was argued, would be labour saving, resulting in displacement of workers to join the reserved army of the unemployed, whose presence depresses the wage level.
Joseph Bocke developed a model of dualistic economies which was later popularized by Arthur Lewis. In accordance with this model, the national economy was divided with two parallel institutional production sectors, namely, the traditional sector and the modern sector. The latter is dominated by foreign trade, technology investment and foreign management and is characterized by the beneficial values of discipline, hard work and productive creativity.
On the other hand, in the traditional sector, the static low- level equilibrium conditions advanced by the vicious circle of poverty theory are said to hold.
According to this school of thought, the subsistence life style and a cultural value that are antitheses to economic growth and modernization dominate. Understanding the nature of poverty became upgraded with the modern theoretical approach that considers the income dimension as the core of most poverty -related problems.
Poverty may arise from changes in average income, or changes in the distributed income. Equitably distributed income increases the chance of the poor to have access to basic services food consumption, housing etc.General Recommendation No. 1 (fifth session, ) Initial reports submitted under article 18 of the Convention should cover the situation up to the date of submission.
The Problem Of Personal Identity - This ability is what he defines as consciousness.
With these two conditions in place, Locke is then able to give us his definition of personal identity, namely “the sameness of a rational being. General Recommendation No.
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The paper discusses the concept of poverty and elucidates the various methods of measurement used in evaluating poverty. Causes of poverty in Nigeria were also brought into perspective. It was concluded that inadequate economic growth is the main cause of poverty in Nigeria.
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